CN: 32-1845/R
ISSN: 2095-6975
Cite this paper:
MEI Xiao-Dan, CAO Yan-Feng, CHE Yan-Yun, LI Jing, SHANG Zhan-Peng, ZHAO Wen-Jing, QIAO Yan-Jiang, ZHANG Jia-Yu. Danshen: a phytochemical and pharmacological overview[J]. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 2019, 17(1): 59-80

Danshen: a phytochemical and pharmacological overview

MEI Xiao-Dan1, CAO Yan-Feng1, CHE Yan-Yun2, LI Jing3, SHANG Zhan-Peng1, ZHAO Wen-Jing1, QIAO Yan-Jiang1, ZHANG Jia-Yu4
1 School of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 102488, China;
2 College of Pharmaceutical Science, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming 650500, China;
3 College of Basic Medicine, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou 121001, China;
4 Beijing Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
Danshen, the dried root or rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., is a traditional and folk medicine in Asian countries, especially in China and Japan. In this review, we summarized the recent researches of Danshen in traditional uses and preparations, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and side effects. A total of 201 compounds from Danshen have been reported, including lipophilic diterpenoids, water-soluble phenolic acids, and other constituents, which have showed various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-atherogenesis, and anti-diabetes. This article intends to provide novel insight information for further development of Danshen, which could be of great value to its improvement of utilization.
Key words:    Danshen    Traditional uses    Chemical constituents    Quality control    Pharmacological activities   
Received: 2018-10-17   Revised:
PDF (970 KB) Free
Print this page
Email this article to others
Articles by MEI Xiao-Dan
Articles by CAO Yan-Feng
Articles by CHE Yan-Yun
Articles by LI Jing
Articles by SHANG Zhan-Peng
Articles by ZHAO Wen-Jing
Articles by QIAO Yan-Jiang
Articles by ZHANG Jia-Yu
[1] Zhou LM, Zuo Z, Chow MSS. Danshen:an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use[J]. J Clin Pharmacol, 2005, 45(12):1345-1359.
[2] Chang HM, Cheng KP, Choang TF, et al. Structure elucidation and total synthesis of new tanshinones isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen)[J]. J Org Chem, 1990, 55(11):3537-3543.
[3] Ryu SY, Lee CO, Choi SU. In vitro cytotoxicity of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1997, 63(4):339-342.
[4] Lichtenthaler HK. Non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthesis:enzymes, genes and inhibitors[J]. Biochem Soc Trans, 2000, 28(6):785-789.
[5] Laule O, Fürholz A, Chang HS, et al. Crosstalk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2003, 100(11):6866-6871.
[6] Ge XC, Wu JY. Tanshinone production and isoprenoid pathways in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots induced by Ag+ and yeast elicitor[J]. Plant Sci, 2005, 168(2):487-491.
[7] Kai GY, Xu H, Zhou CC, et al. Metabolic engineering tanshinone biosynthetic pathway in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures[J]. Metab Eng, 2011, 13(3):319-327.
[8] Shi M, Lou X, Ju G, et al. Increased accumulation of the cardio-cerebrovascular disease treatment drug tanshinone in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots by the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase[J]. Funct Integr Genomics, 2014, 14(3):603-615.
[9] Dai ZB, Cui GH, Zhou SF, et al. Cloning and characterization of a novel 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene from Salvia miltiorrhiza involved in diterpenoid tanshinone accumulation[J]. J Plant Physiol, 2011, 168(2):148-157.
[10] Ai CB, Li LN. Stereostructure of salvianolic acid B and isolation of salvianolic acid C from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J Nat Prod, 1988, 51(1):145-149.
[11] Ai CB, Li LN. Salvianolic acids D and E:two new depsides from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1992, 58(2):197-199.
[12] Huang L, Liu D, Hu Z. Effects of phytohormones on growth and content of depsides in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cells[J]. Chin Med Mat, 2000, 23(1):1-4.
[13] Li J, He LY, Song WZ. Separation and quantitative determination of seven aqueous depsides in Salvia miltiorrhiza by HPTLC scanning[J]. Acta Pharm Sin, 1993, 28(7):543-547.
[14] Li LN, Tan R, Chen WM. Salvianolic acid A, a new depside from roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1984, 50(3):227-228.
[15] Murakami S, Kijima H, Isobe Y, et al. Effect of salvianolic acid A, a depside from roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase[J]. Planta Med, 1990, 56(4):360-363.
[16] Jiang RW, Lau KM, Hon PM, et al. Chemistry and biological activities of caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Curr Med Chem, 2005, 12(2):237-246.
[17] Du GH, Zhang JT. The general situation and progress of the modern research of red sage root (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae).I.[J]. Herald Med, 2004, 23:355-360.
[18] Du GH, Zhang JT. The general situation and progress of the modern research of red sage root (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae). Ⅱ.[J]. Herald Med, 2004, 23:435-440.
[19] Zhang SC, Yan Y, Wang BQ, et al. Selective responses of enzymes in the two parallel pathways of rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway to elicitors in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures[J]. J Biosci Bioeng, 2014, 117(5):645-651.
[20] Yan Q, Shi M, Ng J, et al. Elicitor-induced rosmarinic acid accumulation and secondary metabolism enzyme activities in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots[J]. Plant Sci, 2006, 170(4):853-858.
[21] Chen TL, Bi CQ, Xiao X, et al. Fingerprint and simultaneous determination of multi-components in water-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in Miao Autonomous County of Songtao, Guizhou[J]. Chin Med Mat, 2015, 38(3):536-539.
[22] Liu AH, Lin YH, Yang M, et al. Development of the fingerprints for the quality of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n)[J]. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2007, 846(1-2):32-41.
[23] Zhang LL, Liu YY, Liu ZL, et al. Comparison of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) and its variety S. miltiorrhiza Bge f. Alba (Baihua Danshen) based on multi-wavelength HPLC-fingerprinting and contents of nine active components[J]. Anal Methods-UK, 2016, 8(15):3171-3182.
[24] Luo H, KW, Hu Y, et al. Quality evaluation of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detection and chemical fingerprinting coupled with chemometric analysis[J]. J Sep Sci, 2015, 38(9):1544-1551.
[25] Liu M, Li YG, Chou GX, et al. Extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography of hydrophilic an lipophilic bioactive components in a Chinese herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae[J]. J Chromatogr A, 2007, 1157(1-2):51-55.
[26] Liang WY, Chen WJ, Wu LF, et al. Quality evaluation and chemical markers screening of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. (Danshen) based on HPLC fingerprints and HPLC-MS(n) coupled with chemometrics[J]. Molecules, 2017, 22(3):E478.
[27] Li XC, Yu C, Sun WK, et al. Pharmacokinetics of magnesium lithospermate B after intravenous administration in beagle dogs[J]. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2004, 25(11):1402-1407.
[28] Li XC, Yu C, Sun WK, et al. Simultaneous determination of magnesium lithospermate B, rosmarinic acid, and lithospermic acid in beagle dog serum by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry[J]. R Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2004, 18(23):2878-2882.
[29] Li X, Yu C, Sun W, et al. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of magnesium lithospermate B in beagle dog serum[J]. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2005, 38(1):107-111.
[30] Li X, Yu C, Cai Y, et al. Simultaneous determination of six phenolic constituents of danshen in human serum using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry[J]. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2005, 820(1):41-47.
[31] Xu M, Fu G, Qiao X, et al. HPLC method for comparative study on tissue distribution in rat after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Biomed Chromatogr, 2007, 21(10):1052-1063.
[32] Zhang Y, Akao T, Nakamura N, et al. Extremely low bioavailability of magnesium lithospermate B, an active component from Salvia miltiorrhiza, in rat[J]. Planta Med, 2004, 70(2):138-142.
[33] Zhang Y, Akao T, Nakamura N, et al. Magnesium lithospermate B is excreted rapidly into rat bile mostly as methylated metabolites, which are potent antioxidants[J]. Drug Metab Dispos, 2004, 32(7):752-757.
[34] Zhou X, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Chang D, et al. Synergistic effects of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix et Rhizoma) and Sanqi (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma) combination in inhibiting inflammation mediators in RAW264.7 cells[J]. Biomed Res Int, 2016, 2016:1-12.
[35] Chen YH, Lin SJ, Ku HH, et al. Salvianolic acid B attenuates VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-alpha-treated human aortic endothelial cells[J]. J Cell Biochem, 2001, 82(3):512-521.
[36] Yang JX, Pan YY, Ge JH, et al. Tanshinone Ⅱ A attenuates TNF-α-induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in endothelial progenitor cells by blocking activation of NF-κB[J]. Cell Physiol Biochem, 2016, 40(1-2):195-206.
[37] Tang S, Shen XY, Huang HQ, et al. Cryptotanshinone suppressed inflammatory cytokines secretion in RAW264.7 macrophages through inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways[J]. Inflammation, 2011, 34(2):111-118.
[38] Ma SL, Zhang DW, Lou HX, et al. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of tanshinones isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza var. alba roots in THP-1 macrophages[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2016, 188:193-199.
[39] Xu M, Cao FL, Zhang YF, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA therapeutically reduces LPS-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis in mice[J]. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2015, 36(2):179-187.
[40] Jiang CM, Zhu W, Shao QY, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA protects against folic acid-induced acute kidney injury[J]. Am J Chin Med, 2016, 44(4):737-753.
[41] Shu M, Hu XR, Hung ZA, et al. Effects of tanshinone ⅡA on fibrosis in a rat model of cirrhosis through heme oxygenase-1, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2016, 13(4):3036-3042.
[42] Lu BL, Li J, Zhou J, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA decreases the levels of inflammation induced by Aβ1-42 in brain tissues of Alzheimer's disease model rats[J]. Neuroreport, 2016, 27(12):883-893.
[43] Zhao D, Tong L, Zhang L, et al. Tanshinone Ⅱ A stabilizes vulnerable plaques by suppressing RAGE signaling and NF-κB activation in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2016, 14(6):4983-4990.
[44] Xu SX, Zhong AQ, Bu XK, et al. Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells[J]. Thromb Res, 2015, 135(1):137-145.
[45] Xie LX, Durairajan SSK, Lu JH, et al. The effect of salvianolic acid B combined with laminar shear stress on TNF-alpha-stimulated adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells[J]. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc, 2010, 44(4):245-258.
[46] Ho JHC, Hong CY. Salvianolic acids:small compounds with multiple mechanisms for cardiovascular protection[J]. J Biomed Sci, 2011, 18(1):18-30.
[47] Feng J, Li SS, Chen HW. Tanshinone ⅡA inhibits myocardial remodeling induced by pressure overload via suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation:possible role of silent information regulator 1[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2016, 791:632-639.
[48] Hu HL, Zhai CL, Qian G, et al. Protective effects of tanshinone ⅡA on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress, HMGB1 expression, and inflammatory reaction[J]. Pharm Biol, 2015, 53(12):1752-1758.
[49] Cai M, Guo Y, Wang S, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA elicits neuroprotective effect via activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor -dependent antioxidant response[J]. Rejuv Res, 2017, 20(4):286-297.
[50] Oliveira MR, Fürstenau CR, Ferreira GD, et al. Tanshinone I attenuates the effects of a challenge with H2O2, on the functions of tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain in SH-SY5Y Cells[J]. Mol Neurobiol, 2017, 54(10):7858-7868.
[51] Park JH, Park OK, Yan BC, et al. Neuroprotection via maintenance or increase of antioxidants and neurotrophic factors in ischemic gerbil hippocampus treated with tanshinone I[J]. Chin Med J (Engl), 2014, 127(19):3396-3405.
[52] Chen CP, Yokozawa T, Chung HY. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid analogues isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical[J]. Exp Toxicol Pathol, 1999, 51(1):59-63.
[53] Wu CF, Bohnert S, Thines E, et al. Cytotoxicity of Salvia miltiorrhiza against multidrug-resistant cancer cells[J]. Am J Chin Med, 2016, 44(4):871-894.
[54] Chen XP, Guo JJ, Bao JL, et al. The anticancer properties of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (Danshen):a systematic review[J]. Med Res Rev, 2014, 34(4):768-794.
[55] Kim EO, Kang SE, Im CR, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA induces TRAIL sensitization of human lung cancer cells through selective ER stress induction[J]. Int J Oncol, 2016, 48(5):2205-2212.
[56] Yu J, Wang XX, Li YH, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration by downregulation of FOXM1[J]. Oncol Rep, 2017, 37(3):1394-1400.
[57] Zhang HS, Zhang FJ, Li H, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA inhibits human esophageal cancer cell growth through miR-122-mediated PKM2 down-regulation[J]. Arch Biochem Biophys, 2016, 598:50-56.
[58] Ding L, Wang S, Qu X, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA sensitizes oral squamous cell carcinoma to radiation due to an enhanced autophagy[J]. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2016, 46:264-269.
[59] Sung HJ, Choi SM, Yoon Y, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA, an ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines through the activation of caspase-3[J]. Exp Mol Med, 1999, 31(4):174-178.
[60] Lee CY, Sher HF, Chen HW, et al. Anticancer effects of tanshinone I in human non-small cell lung cancer[J]. Mol Cancer Ther, 2008, 7(11):3527-3538.
[61] Jing X, Xu Y, Cheng W, et al. Tanshinone I induces apoptosis and pro-survival autophagy in gastric cancers[J]. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2016, 77(6):1171-1181.
[62] Wang L, Wu JZ, Lu JW, et al. Regulation of the cell cycle and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway by tanshinone I in human breast cancer cell lines[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2015, 11(2):931-939.
[63] Shin EA, Sohn EJ, Won G, et al. Upregulation of microRNA135a-3p and death receptor 5 plays a critical role in tanshinone I sensitized prostate cancer cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis[J]. Oncotarget, 2014, 5(14):5624-5636.
[64] Chen WX, Pan YH, Wang SL, et al. Cryptotanshinone activates AMPK-TSC2 axis leading to inhibition of mTORC1 signaling in cancer cells[J]. Bmc Cancer, 2017, 17(1):34-44.
[65] Chen XP, Li QH, He Y, et al. 15, 16-dihydrotanshinone I induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation, migration of human osteosarcoma cell line 143B in vitro[J]. Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017, 17(9):1234-1242.
[66] Zhang Q, Wang SF, Yu YY, et al. Salvianolic acid A, as a novel ETA receptor antagonist, shows inhibitory effects on tumor in vitro[J]. Int J Mol Sci, 2016, 17(8):E1244.
[67] Li H, Shi L, Wei J, et al. Cellular uptake and anticancer activity of salvianolic acid B phospholipid complex loaded nanoparticles in head and neck cancer and precancer cells[J]. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016, 147:65-72.
[68] Wang X, Wang CY, Zhang LJ, et al. Salvianolic acid A shows selective cytotoxicity against multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells[J]. Anticancer Drugs, 2015, 26(2):210-223.
[69] Wu CF, Karioti A, Rohr D, et al. Production of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B from callus culture of Salvia miltiorrhiza with cytotoxicity towards acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells[J]. Food Chem, 2016, 201:292-297.
[70] Wang ZS, Luo P, Dai SH, et al. Salvianolic acid B induces apoptosis in human glioma U87 cells through p38-mediated ROS generation[J]. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2013, 33(7):921-928.
[71] Chen Z, Xu H. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism of tanshinone ⅡA for atherosclerosis[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2014,2014:267976-267976
[72] Niu XL, Ichimori K, Yang X, et al. Tanshinone Ⅱ-A inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro[J]. Free Radic Res, 2000, 33(3):305-312.
[73] Liu Z, Xu S, Huang X, et al. Cryptotanshinone, an orally bioactive herbal compound from Danshen, attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice:role of LOX-1[J]. Br J Pharmacol, 2015, 172(23):5661-5675.
[74] Zhao W, Wu C, Chen X. Cryptotanshinone inhibits oxidized LDL-induced adhesion molecule expression ROS dependent NF-κB pathways[J]. Cell Adh Migr, 2016, 10(3):248-258.
[75] Ran X, Zhao W, Li W, et al. Cryptotanshinone inhibits TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in endothelial cells[J]. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, 2016, 20(4):347-355.
[76] Zhao W, Li C, Gao H, et al. Dihydrotanshinone I attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice:role of NOX4/NF-κB mediated lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1(LOX-1) of the endothelium[J]. Front Pharmacol, 2016, 7(117):418.
[77] Cho YH, Ku CR, Hong ZY, et al. Therapeutic effects of water soluble Danshen extracts on atherosclerosis[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013,2013:623639-623639.
[78] Rang, Humphrey. Rang and Dale's Pharmacology[M]. ELSEVIER, 2007:156-158.
[79] Cao H, Zhang L, Sun ZB, et al. Salvia miltiorrhiza prevents deep vein thrombosis via antioxidative effects in endothelial cells[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2015, 11(5):3593-3600.
[80] Lü M, Wang TY, Tian XX, et al. Interaction of anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory activities of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis revealed by network pharmacology analysis[J]. Acta Pharm Sin, 2015, 50(9):1135-1141.
[81] Huang ZS, Zeng CL, Zhu LJ, et al. Salvianolic acid A inhibits platelet activation and arterial thrombosis via inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase[J]. J Thromb Haemost, 2010, 8(6):1383-1393.
[82] Moon CY, Ku CR, Cho YH, et al. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis[J]. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2012, 423(1):116-121.
[83] Rang, Humphrey. Rang and Dale's Pharmacology[M]. ELSEVIER, 2007:231-235.
[84] Wang Y, Cao SH, Cui YJ, et al. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba ameliorates the progression of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension by protecting endothelial injury in rats[J]. Tohoku J Exp Med, 2015, 236(2):155-162.
[85] Kang DG, Yun YG, Ryoo JH, et al. Anti-hypertensive effect of water extract of danshen on renovascular hypertension through inhibition of the renin angiotensin system[J]. Am J Chin Med, 2002, 30(01):87-93.
[86] Zhang J, An SJ, Fu JQ, et al. Mixed aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza reduces blood pressure through inhibition of vascular remodelling and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats[J]. Cell Physiol Biochem, 2016, 40(1-2):347-360.
[87] Wang J, Lu WJ, Wang W, et al. Promising therapeutic effects of sodium tanshinone ⅡA sulfonate towards pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients[J]. J Thorac Dis, 2013, 5(2):169-172.
[88] Ling WC, Liu J, Lau CW, et al. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin Ⅱ-induced hypertensive mice[J]. Biochem Pharmacol, 2017, 136:76-85.
[89] Chen J, Deng J, Zhang YY, et al. Lipid-lowering effects of Danhong injection on hyperlipidemia rats[J]. J Ethnopharmacology, 2014, 154(2):437-442.
[90] Zhang SJ, Cheng ZX, Lin YW, et al. Effection of compositie salviae dropping pill on hyperlipemia patients with phlegm and blood stasis syndrome[J]. Chin J Chin Mater Med, 2007, 32(5):440-443.
[91] Jia LQ, Zhang N, Xu Y, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA affects the HDL subfractions distribution not serum lipid levels:involving in intake and efflux of cholesterol[J]. Arch Biochem Biophys, 2016, 592:50-59.
[92] Rahman N, Jeon M, Song HY, et al. Cryptotanshinone, a compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits pre-adipocytes differentiation by regulation of adipogenesis-related genes expression via STAT3 signaling[J]. Phytomedicine, 2016, 23(1):58-67.
[93] Yang QA, Wang SW, Xie YH, et al. Effect of salvianolic acid b and paeonol on blood lipid metabolism and hemorrheology in myocardial ischemia rabbits induced by pituitruin[J]. Int J Mol Sci, 2010, 11(10):3696-3704.
[94] Xu GL, Zhao WX, Zhou ZM, et al. Danshen extracts decrease blood C reactive protein and prevent ischemic stroke recurrence:a controlled pilot study[J]. Phytother Res, 2009, 23(12):1721-1725.
[95] Lv HD, Wang L, Shen JC, et al. Salvianolic acid B attenuates apoptosis and inflammation via SIRT1 activation in experimental stroke rats[J]. Brain Res Bull, 2015, 115:30-36.
[96] Tzen JT, Jinn TR, Chen YC, et al. Magnesium lithospermate B possesses inhibitory activity on Na+, K+-ATPase and neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke[J]. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2007, 28(5):609-615.
[97] Li DC, Bao XQ, Sun H, et al. Research progress in the study of protective effect of tanshinone ⅡA on cerebral ischemic stroke[J]. Acta Pharm Sin, 2015, 50(6):635-639.
[98] Yu XY, Lin SG, Chen X, et al. Transport of cryptotanshinone, a major active triterpenoid in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge widely used in the treatment of stroke and Alzheimer's disease, across the blood-brain barrier[J]. Curr Drug Metab, 2007, 8(4):365-377.
[99] Liu BY, Du YH, Cong LX, et al. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) compounds improve the biochemical indices of the patients with coronary heart disease[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2016,2016:9781715-9781715.
[100] Huang JC, Tang XJ, Ye FX, et al. Clinical therapeutic effects of aspirin in combination with Fufang Danshen Diwan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on coronary heart disease:a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Cell Physiol Biochem, 2016, 39(5):1955-1963.
[101] Wei W, Liu YW, Zhang Q, et al. Danshen-enhanced cardioprotective effect of cardioplegia on ischemia reperfusion injury in a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes model[J]. Artif Organs, 2017, 41(5):452-460.
[102] Qin RA, Lin J, Li CY, et al. Study of the protective mechanisms of compound Danshen Tablet (Fufang Danshen Pian) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via the Akt-eNOS signaling pathway in rats[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2014, 156:190-198.
[103] Li Q, Shen L, Wang Z, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway[J]. Biomed Pharmacother, 2016, 84:106-114.
[104] Wei Y, Xu M, Ren Y, et al. The cardioprotection of dihydrotanshinone I against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via inhibition of arachidonic acid ω-hydroxylase[J]. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 2016, 94(12):1267-1275.
[105] Yu JH, Wang LY, Akinyi M, et al. Danshensu protects isolated heart against ischemia reperfusion injury through activation of Akt/ERK1/2/Nrf2 signaling[J]. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015, 8(9):14793-14804.
[106] He ZF, Sun CZ, Xu Y, et al. Reduction of atrial fibrillation by Tanshinone ⅡA in chronic heart failure[J]. Biomed Pharmacother, 2016, 84:1760-1767.
[107] Huang LB, Zheng M, Zhou YD, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA attenuates cardiac dysfunction in endotoxin-induced septic mice via inhibition of NADPH oxidase 2-related signaling pathway[J]. Int Immunopharmacol, 2015, 28(1):444-449.
[108] Lee CM, Wong HN, Chui KY, et al. Miltirone, a central benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist from a Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Neurosci Lett, 1991, 127(2):237-241.
[109] Fang XS, Hao JF, Zhou HY, et al. Pharmacological studies on the sedative-hypnotic effect of Semen Ziziphi spinosae (Suanzaoren) and Radix et Rhizoma Salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) extracts and the synergistic effect of their combinations[J]. Phytomedicine, 2010, 17(1):75-80.
[110] Liu C, Shi W, Sun L, et al. Effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on visceral pain discharges in the posterior nucleus of the thalamus in cats[J]. Chin J Chin Mater Med, 1990, 15(2):112-115.
[111] Cao FL, Xu M, Wang Y, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibiting glial activation and immune response[J]. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2015, 128:1-7.
[112] Tang J, Zhu C, Li ZH, et al. Inhibition of the spinal astrocytic JNK/MCP-1 pathway activation correlates with the analgesic effects of tanshinone ⅡA sulfonate in neuropathic pain[J]. J Neuroinflammation, 2015, 12(1):57.
[113] Li J, Wen PY, Li WW, et al. Upregulation effects of Tanshinone ⅡA on the expressions of NeuN, Nissl body, and IκB and downregulation effects on the expressions of GFAP and NF-κB in the brain tissues of rat models of Alzheimer's disease[J]. Neuroreport, 2015, 26(13):758-766.
[114] Wen P, Luo H, Zhou L, et al. Effects of tanshinone ⅡA on the expressions of caspase-3, Akt and NF-κB in the brains of rat models of Alzheimer's disease[J]. Chin J Cell Mol Imm, 2014, 30(2):155-159.
[115] Jiang P, Li C, Xiang Z, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting iNOS, MMP-2 and NF-κB p65 transcription and translation in the temporal lobes of rat models of Alzheimer's disease[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2014, 10(2):689-694.
[116] Mei Z, Yan P, Situ B, et al. Cryptotanshinione inhibits β-amyloid aggregation and protects damage from β-amyloid in SH-SY5Y cells[J]. Neurochem Res, 2012, 37(3), 622-628.
[117] Mei ZR, Zhang FY, Tao L, et al. Cryptotanshinone, a compound from Salvia miltiorrhiza modulates amyloid precursor protein metabolism and attenuates beta-amyloid deposition through upregulating alpha-secretase in vivo and in vitro[J]. Neurosci Lett, 2009, 452(2):90-95.
[118] Wong K, Ho T, Lin HQ, et al. Cryptotanshinone, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Salvia miltiorrhiza, ameliorates scopolamine-induced amnesia in Morris water maze task[J]. Planta Med, 2010, 76(3):228-234.
[119] Wong KKK, Ngo JCK, Liu SJ, et al. Interaction study of two diterpenes, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone, to human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by molecular docking and kinetic analysis[J]. Chem Biol Interact, 2010, 187(1-3):335-339.
[120] Zhou YQ, Li WX, Xu L, et al. In Salvia miltiorrhiza, phenolic acids possess protective properties against amyloid beta-induced cytotoxicity and tanshinones act as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors[J]. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2011, 31(3):443-452.
[121] Cao YY, Wang L, Ge H, et al. Salvianolic acid A, a polyphenolic derivative from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge, as a multifunctional agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease[J]. Mol Divers, 2013, 17(3):515-524.
[122] Lee YW, Kim DH, Jeon SJ, et al. Neuroprotective effects of salvianolic acid B on an Aβ25-35 peptide-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2013, 704(1-3):70-77.
[123] Tang Y, Huang D, Zhang MH, et al. Salvianolic acid B inhibits a beta generation by modulating BACE1 activity in SH-SY5Y-APPsw cells[J]. Nutrients, 2016, 8(6):E333.
[124] Chong CM, Zhou ZY, Razmovski-Naumovski V, et al. Danshensu protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage of PC12 cells in vitro and dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish[J]. Neurosci Lett, 2013, 543:121-125.
[125] Zhou J, Qu XD, Li ZY, et al. Salvianolic acid B attenuates toxin-induced neuronal damage via Nrf2-dependent glial cells-mediated protective activity in Parkinson's disease models[J]. Plos One, 2014, 9(7):e101668.
[126] Ji K, Zhao Y, Yu T, et al. Inhibition effects of tanshinone on the aggregation of α-synuclein[J]. Food Funct, 2015, 7(1):409-416.
[127] Wang S, Jing H, Yang H, et al. Tanshinone I selectively suppresses pro-inflammatory genes expression in activated microglia and prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2015, 164:247-255.
[128] Xu J, Wei X, Ren M, et al. Neuroprotective effects of Tanshinone I against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress in cellular and mouse model of Parkinson's disease through upregulating Nrf2[J]. Neurochem Res, 2015, 41(4):779-786.
[129] Ren B, Zhang YX, Zhou HX, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA prevents the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and iNOS in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease[J]. J Neurol Sci, 2015, 348(1-2):142-152.
[130] Li L. Protective effects of schisanhenol, salvianolic acid A and SY-L on oxidative stress induced injuries of cerebral cells and their mechanisms[J]. Prog physio Sci, 1998, 29(1):35-38.
[131] Tian LL, Wang XJ, Sun YN, et al. Salvianolic acid B, an antioxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza, prevents 6-hydroxydopamine induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells[J]. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2008, 40(3):409-422.
[132] Zhang Y, Zhang YY, Xie Y, et al. Multitargeted inhibition of hepatic fibrosis in chronic iron-overloaded mice by Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2013, 148(2):671-681.
[133] Nan JX, Park EJ, Kang HC, et al. Anti-fibrotic effects of a hot-water extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza roots on liver fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats[J]. J Pharm Pharmacol, 2001, 53(2):197-204.
[134] Sferra R, Vetuschi A, Catitti V, et al. Boswellia serrata and Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts reduce DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by TGF-beta1 downregulation[J]. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2012, 16(11):1484-1498.
[135] Wang WW, Guan CW, Sun XZ, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity via activating the Nrf2 pathway[J]. Phytomedicine, 2016, 23(6):589-596.
[136] Jin Q, Jiang S, Wu YL, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza in d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure[J]. Phytomedicine, 2014, 21(2):141-147.
[137] Ge M, Liu H, Zhang Y, et al. The anti-hepatic fibrosis effects of dihydrotanshinone I are mediated by disrupting the YAP and TEAD2 complex and stimulating autophagy[J]. Br J Pharmacol, 2017, 174(10):1147-1160.
[138] Lv T, Yao XX. Comparison of protocatechuic aldchyde in Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding pharmacological sera from normal and fibrotic rats by high performance liquid chromatography[J]. World J Gastroenterol, 2006, 12(14):2195-2200.
[139] Ding CC, Zhao Y, Shi X, et al. New insights into salvianolic acid A action:regulation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 and TXNIP/ChREBP pathways ameliorates HFD-induced NAFLD in rats[J]. Sci Rep, 2016, 6:28734.
[140] Lv Z, Xu L. Salvianolic acid B inhibits ERK and p38 MAPK signaling in TGF-β1-stimulated human hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) via distinct pathways[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012, 2012(4):960128.
[141] Paik YH, Yoon YJ, Lee HC, et al. Antifibrotic effects of magnesium lithospermate B on hepatic stellate cells and thioacetamide-induced cirrhotic rats[J]. Exp Mol Med, 2011, 43(6):341-349.
[142] Chan KWK, Ho WS. Anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects of lithospermic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo[J]. Oncol Rep, 2015, 34(2):673-680.
[143] Dai LJ, Hou J, Cai HR. Experimental study on treatment of pulmonary fibrosis by Chinese drugs and integrative Chinese and Western medicine[J]. Chin J Integr Trad West Med, 2004, 24(2):130-132.
[144] Hou J, Dai L, Huang M, et al. The therapeutic effect of ligustrazin and Salvia miltiorrhiza on the gene expression of alpha1(I) and alpha1(Ⅲ) procollagen in rat pulmonary fibrosis[J]. Chin J Tubere Respir Dis, 1999, 22(1):43-45.
[145] He HY, Tang HY, Gao LL, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2015, 11(6):4190-4196.
[146] Pan YM, Fu HY, Kong Q, et al. Prevention of pulmonary fibrosis with salvianolic acid A by inducing fibroblast cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2014, 155(3):1589-1596.
[147] Zhang M, Cao SR, Zhang R, et al. The inhibitory effect of salvianolic acid B on TGF-β1-induced proliferation and differentiation in lung fibroblasts[J]. Exp Lung Res, 2014, 40(4):172-185.
[148] Liu J, Hua G, Wang H, et al. Experimental study of the effect of IH764-3 on pulmonary fibrosis[J]. Chin Med Sci J, 1993, 8(1):9-14.
[149] Yao DQ, Tian YP, Gao HB, et al. Study the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza monomer IH764-3 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase in lungs of rats exposed to Paraquat (PQ)[J]. Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis, 2012, 30(5):321-325.
[150] Lu XM, Jin YN, Ma L, et al. Danshen (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae) reverses renal injury induced by myocardial infarction[J]. J Tradit Chin Med, 2015, 35(3):306-311.
[151] He L, Zhang QQ, Lü XY, et al. Effects of water extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza against renal injury on rats exposed to cadmium[J]. Natl Med J China, 2017, 97(1):57-61.
[152] Chen G, Fu YR, Wu XH. Protective effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract against renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats[J]. Molecules, 2012, 17(2):1191-1202.
[153] Jiang CM, Shao QY, Jin B, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA attenuates renal fibrosis after acute kidney injury in a mouse model through inhibition of fibrocytes recruitment[J]. Biomed Res Int, 2015, 2015:867140-867140.
[154] Jiang C, Zhu W, Yan X, et al. Rescue therapy with Tanshinone ⅡA hinders transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease via targeting GSK3β[J]. Sci Rep, 2016, 6:36698.
[155] Xu YM, Ding GH, Huang J, et al. Tanshinone ⅡA pretreatment attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury[J]. Exp Ther Med, 2016, 12(4):2741-2746.
[156] Kang DG, Oh H, Sohn EJ, et al. Lithospermic acid B isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats[J]. Life Sci, 2004, 75(15):1801-1816.
[157] Park CH, Shin SH, Lee EK, et al. Magnesium lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge ameliorates aging-induced renal inflammation and senescence via NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen generation[J]. Phytother Res, 2017, 31(5):721-728.
[158] Guan SJ, Ma JJ, Zhang Y, et al. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) injection suppresses kidney injury induced by iron overload in mice[J]. PLos One, 2013, 8(9):e74318.
[159] Li L, Zhang YY, Ma JJ, et al. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection ameliorates renal damage induced by lead exposure in mice[J]. Sci World J, 2014, 2014:572697-572697.
[160] Huang MQ, Xie YL, Chen LD, et al. Antidiabetic effect of the total polyphenolic acids fraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in diabetic rats[J]. Phytother Res, 2012, 26(6):944-948.
[161] Yang XY, Sun L, Xu P, et al. Effects of salvianolic scid A on plantar microcirculation and peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2011, 665(1-3):40-46.
[162] Raoufi S, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M, et al. Antidiabetic potential of salvianolic acid B in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes[J]. Pharm Biol, 2015, 53(12):1803-1809.
[163] Huang MQ, Zhou CJ, Zhang YP, et al. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in db/db mice through the AMPK pathway[J]. Cell Physiol Biochem, 2016, 40(5):933-943.
[164] Ren YN, Tao SJ, Zheng SG, et al. Salvianolic acid B improves vascular endothelial function in diabetic rats with blood glucose fluctuations via suppression of endothelial cell apoptosis[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2016, 791:308-315.
[165] Jin CJ, Yu SH, Wang XM, et al. The effect of lithospermic acid, an antioxidant, on development of diabetic retinopathy in spontaneously obese diabetic rats[J]. PLos One, 2014, 9(6):e98232.
[166] Hu J, Li YL, Li ZL, et al. Chronic supplementation of paeonol combined with Danshensu for the improvement of vascular reactivity in the cerebral basilar artery of diabetic rats[J]. Int J Mol Sci, 2012, 13(11):14565-14578.
[167] Wang T, Fu FH, Han B, et al. Danshensu ameliorates the cognitive decline in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by attenuating advanced glycation end product-mediated neuroinflammation[J]. J Neuroimmunol, 2012, 245(1-2):79-86.
[168] Chen P, Chen J, Zheng Q, et al. Pioglitazone, extract of compound Danshen dripping pill, and quercetin ameliorate diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats[J]. J Endocrinol Invest, 2013, 36(6):422-427.
[169] Zhang M, Li X, Jiu G, et al. Effect of danshen injection on expression of platelet membrane glycoproteins in patients with type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus[J]. Chin Med Mat, 2003, 26(10):738-740.
[170] Xu LH, Shen PQ, Bi YL, et al. Danshen injection ameliorates STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in association with suppression of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory factors and fibrosis[J]. Int Immunopharmacol, 2016, 38:385-394.
[171] Yin DK, Yin JJ, Yang Y, et al. Renoprotection of Danshen injection on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, associated with tubular function and structure[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2014, 151(1):667-674.
[172] Zhang JL, Cui M, He Y, et al. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic fingerprint analysis of Danshen injection by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS methods[J]. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2005, 36(5):1029-1035.
[173] Zhao D, Han DE, Li N, et al. Simultaneous determination of six phenolic constituents of Danshen injection in rat plasma by LC-ESI-MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study[J]. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester), 2011, 17(4):395-403.
[174] Abdelazem IS, Chen HS, Bates RB, et al. Isolation of two highly potent and non-toxic inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) integrase from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Antivir Res, 2002, 55(1):91-106.
[175] Zhang HS, Chen XY, Wu TC, et al. Tanshinone Ⅱ A inhibits tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation through redox-regulated AMPK/Nampt pathway[J]. J Cell Physiol, 2014, 229(9):1193-1201.
[176] Wang GZ, Ru X, Ding LH, et al. Short-term effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza in treating rat acetic acid chronic gastric ulcer and long-term effect in preventing recurrence[J]. World J Gastroenterol, 1998, 4(2):169-170.
[177] Murakami S, Kijima H, Isobe Y, et al. Effect of salvianolic acid A, a depside from roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase[J]. Planta Med, 1990, 56(04):360-363.
[178] Ryu SY, Oak MH, Kim KM. Inhibition of mast cell degranulation by tanshinones from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1999, 65(7):654-655.
[179] Trinh HT, Chae SJ, Joh EH, et al. Tanshinones isolated from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2010, 132(1):344-348.
[180] Yang JH, Son KH, Son JK, et al. Anti-allergic activity of an ethanol extract from Salviae miltiorrhiza[J]. Arch Pharm Res, 2008, 31(12):1597-1603.
[181] Zhang CS, Yu JJ, Parker S, et al. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for psoriasis vulgaris:a systematic review[J]. Int J Dermatol, 2014, 53(11):1305-1318.
[182] Lee DS, Lee SH, Noh JG, et al. Antibacterial activities of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I from a medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge[J]. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 1999, 63(12):2236-2239.
[183] Liu QQ, Han J, Zuo GY, et al. Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)[J]. J Pharmacol Sci, 2016, 131(1):13-17.
[184] Liang BF, Su JW. Involvement of renin-angiotensin system inhibition, the potential risk of Danshen in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension[J]. Phytother Res, 2015, 29(9):1421-1422.
[185] Liu Y, Huang YH, Zhao CY, et al. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection on pulmonary heart disease:a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Phytother Res, 2014, 42(6):1315-1331.
[186] Chang YP, Zhang W, Xie YM, et al. Postmarketing safety evaluation:depside salt injection made from Danshen (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae)[J]. J Tradit Chin Med, 2014, 34(6):749-753.
[187] Wang C, Zhao R, Li B, et al. An in vivo and in vitro study:high-dosage Danshen injection induces peripheral vascular endothelial cells injury[J]. Hum Exp Toxicol, 2016, 35(4):404-417.
[188] Wang N, Luo HW, Niwa M, et al. A new platelet aggregation inhibitor from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1989, 55(4):390-391.
[189] Lin HC, Ding HY, Chang WL. Two new fatty diterpenoids from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J Nat Prod, 2001, 64(5):648-650.
[190] Ikeshiro Y, Mase I, Tomita Y. Abietane type diterpenoids from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Phytochemistry, 1989, 28(11):3139-3141.
[191] Onitsuka M, Fujiu M, Shinma N, et al. New platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tan-Shen; radix of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge[J]. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1983, 31(5):1670-1675.
[192] Don MJ, Shen CC, Syu WJ, et al. Cytotoxic and aromatic constituents from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Phytochemistry, 2006, 67(5):497-503.
[193] Nagy G, Gunther G, Mathe I, et al. Diterpenoids from Salvia glutinosa, S-austriaca, S-tomentosa and S-verticillata roots[J]. Phytochemistry, 1999, 52(6):1105-1109.
[194] Li YG, Song L, Liu M, et al. Advancement in analysis of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen)[J]. J Chromatogr A, 2009, 1216(11):1941-1953.
[195] Li HB, Chen F. Preparative isolation and purification of salidroside from the Chinese medicinal plant Rhodiola sachalinensis by high-speed counter-current chromatography[J]. J Chromatogr A, 2001, 932(1-2):91-95.
[196] Yang M, Liu A, Guan S, et al. Characterization of tanshinones in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan-shen) by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry[J]. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2006, 20(8):1266-1280.
[197] Ma ZJ, Zhang M, Song ZH. Characterization of tanshinones with quinone reductase induction activity from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry[J]. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2009, 23(18):2857-2866.
[198] Lee AR, Wu WL, Chang WL, et al. Isolation and bioactivity of new tanshinones[J]. J Nat Prod, 1987, 50(2):157-160.
[199] Han YM, Oh H, Na MK, et al. PTP1B inhibitory effect of abietane diterpenes isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Biol Pharm Bull, 2005, 28(9):1795-1797.
[200] Luo HW, Wu BJ, Wu MY, et al. Pigments from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Phytochemistry, 1985, 24(4):815-817.
[201] Danheiser RL, Casebier DS, Loebach JL. Total synthesis of dan shen diterpenoid quinones[J]. Tetrahedron Lett, 1992, 33(9):1149-1152.
[202] Luo HW, Wu BJ, Wu MY, et al. Isolation and structure of danshenxinkun D[J]. Acta Pharm Sin, 1985, 20(7):542-544.
[203] Yu XY, Lin SG, Zhou ZW, et al. Tanshinone ⅡB, a primary active constituent from Salvia miltiorrhza, exhibits neuro-protective activity in experimentally stroked rats[J]. Neurosci Lett, 2007, 417(3):261-265.
[204] Dat NT, Jin X, Lee JH, et al. Abietane diterpenes from Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibit the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1[J]. J Nat Prod, 2007, 70(7):1093-1097.
[205] Wang XH, Morris-Natschke SL, Lee KH. New developments in the chemistry and biology of the bioactive constituents of Tanshen[J]. Med Res Rev, 2007, 27(1):133-148.
[206] Xuezhao L, Houwei L, Masatake N. Trijuganone A and B:two new phenanthrenequinones from roots of Salvia trijuga[J]. Planta Med, 1990, 56(1):87-88.
[207] Lin HC, Chang WL. Diterpenoids from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Phytochemistry, 2000, 53(8):951-953.
[208] Ryu SY, No Z, Kim SH, et al. Two novel abietane diterpenes from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1997, 63(1):44-46.
[209] Wang XH, Bastow KF, Sun CM, et al. Antitumor agents. 239. isolation, structure elucidation, total synthesis, and anti-breast cancer activity of neo-tanshinlactone from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J Med Chem, 2004, 47(23):5816-5819.
[210] Yang BJ, Qian MK, Qin GW, et al. Studies on the active principles of Dan-Shen. V. isolation and structures of przewaquinone A and prezewaquinone B (author's transl)[J]. Acta Pharm Sin, 1981, 16(11):837-841.
[211] Don MJ, Shen CC, Lin YL, et al. Nitrogen-containing compounds from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J Nat Prod, 2005, 68(7):1066-1070.
[212] Li XX, Xu X, Wang JN, et al. A system-level investigation into the mechanisms of Chinese Traditional Medicine:compound Danshen Formula for cardiovascular disease treatment[J]. PLos One, 2012, 7(9):e43918.
[213] Asari F, Kusumi T, Zheng GZ, et al. Cryptoaceralide and epicryptoacetalide, novel spirolactone diterpenoids from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Chem Lett, 1990(10):1885-1888.
[214] Lin HC, Chang WL. Phytochemical and pharmacological study on Salvia miltiorrhiza (VI)-cytotoxic activity of tanshinones[J]. Chin Pharm J, 1995, 47(1):77-80.
[215] Feng B, Li S. Studies on the chemical components of Dan-shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge)[J]. Acta Pharm Sin, 1980, 15(8):489-494.
[216] Lin HC,Chang WL. Phytochemical and pharmacological study on Salvia miltiorrhiza (I)-isolation of new tanshinones[J]. Chin Pharm J, 1991, 43(1):11-17.
[217] Kusumi T, Ooi T, Hayashi T, et al. A diterpenoid phenalenone from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Phytochemistry, 1985, 24(9):2118-2120.
[218] Liu J, Dai Z, Wang GL, et al. Progress in bioactive constituents and isolation and analysis methods of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma[J]. Chin J Exp Tradit Med Form, 2012, 18(11):288-295.
[219] Sun AL, Zhang YQ, Li AF, et al. Extraction and preparative purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by high-speed counter-current chromatography[J]. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2011, 879(21):1899-1904.
[220] Kuo YH, Wu CH. Synthesis of 5-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-2-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-benzo[b]furancarbaldehyde, a novel adenosine A1 receptor ligand from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J Nat Prod, 1996, 59(6):625-628.
[221] Ikeshiro Y, Hashimoto I, Iwamoto Y, et al. Diterpenoids from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Phytochemistry, 1991, 30(8):2791-2792.
[222] Zhang HJ, Li LN. Salvianolic acid I:a new depside from Salvia cavaleriei[J]. Planta Med, 1994, 60(1):70-72.
[223] Yang C, Zhang B. Extraction and isolation of water-soluble active constituent, Dan Shen Su, from Salvia miltiorrhiza and preparation of injections[J]. Chin Pharm J, 1981, 16(11):646-647.
[224] Ai CB, Deng QH, Song WZ, et al. Salvianolic acid J, a depside from Salvia flava[J]. Phytochemistry, 1994, 37(3):907-908.
[225] Kang HS, Chung HY, Jung JH, et al. Antioxidant effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Arch Pharm Res, 1997, 20(5):496.
[226] Chun Bo AI, Li LN. Synthesis of tetramethyl salvianolic acid F and (±)-trimethyl przewalskinic acid A[J]. Chin Chem Lett, 1996,7(5):427-430.
[227] Kohda H, Takeda O, Tanaka S, et al. Isolation of inhibitors of adenylate cyclase from dan-shen, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1989, 37(5):1287-1290.
[228] Yokozawa T, Chung HY, Oura H, et al. Isolation of a renal function-facilitating constituent from the Oriental drug, Salviae miltiorrhizae radix[J]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi, 1989, 31(10):1091-1098.
[229] Hase K, Kasimu R, Basnet P, et al. Preventive effect of lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorhiza on experimental hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide[J]. Planta Med, 1997, 63(1):22.
[230] Tanaka T, Morimoto S, Nonaka GI, et al. Magnesium and ammonium-potassium lithospermates B, the active principles having a uremia-preventive effect from Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2008, 37(2):340-344.
[231] Zhou CX, Luo HW, Niwa M. Studies on isolation and identification of water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. J China Pharm Univ, 1999, 30(6):411-416.
[232] Li CBALN. Salvianolic acid G, a caffeic acid dimer with a novel tetracyclic skeleton[J]. Chin Chem Lett, 1991(1):17-18.
[233] Yang Z, Hon PM, Chui KY, et al. ChemInform abstract:naturally occurring benzofuran:isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of 5-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-2-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-benzo(b)furancarbaldehyde, a novel adenosine A1 receptor ligand isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (danshen)[J]. Cheminform, 1991, 32(18):2061-2064.
[234] Chang JY, Chang CY, Kuo CC, et al. Salvinal, a novel microtubule inhibitor isolated from Salvia miltiorrhizae Bunge (Danshen), with antimitotic activity in multidrug-sensitive and-resistant human tumor cells[J]. Mol Pharmacol, 2004, 65(1):77-84.
[235] Lu Y, Foo LY. Salvianolic acid L, a potent phenolic antioxidant from Salvia officinalis[J]. Cheminform, 2001, 42(46):8223-8225.
[236] Kohda H, Takeda O, Tanaka S, et al. Isolation of inhibitors of adenylate cyclase from Danshen, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1989, 37(5):1287-1290.
[237] Kasimu R, Tanaka K, Tezuka Y, et al. Comparative study of seventeen Salvia plants:aldose reductase inhibitory activity of water and MeOH extracts and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of water extracts[J]. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1998, 46(3):500-504.
[238] Li W, Zhou SP, Jin YP, et al. Salvianolic acids T and U:a pair of atropisomeric trimeric caffeic acids derivatives from root of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Fitoterapia, 2014, 98:248-253.
[239] Zhu Z, Zhang H, Zhao L, et al. Rapid separation and identification of phenolic and diterpenoid constituents from radix Salvia miltiorrhizae by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection, electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and electrospray ionizati[J]. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2007, 21(12):1855-1865.
[240] Li LN, Tan R, Chen WM. Salvianolic acid A, a new depside from roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza[J]. Planta Med, 1984, 50(3):227-228.
[241] Qian L, Liang ZS, Wang JR, et al. Essential oil composition of Salvia miltiorrhiza flower[J]. Food Chem, 2009, 113(2):592-594.
[242] Wang D, Girard TJ, Kasten TP, et al. Inhibitory activity of unsaturated fatty acids and anacardic acids toward soluble tissue factor-factor VⅡa complex[J]. J Nat Prod, 1998, 61(11):1352-1355.
[243] Ma C, Wang W, Chen YY, et al. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of compounds from the aerial parts of dioscorea opposita[J]. J Nat Prod, 2005, 68(8):1259-1261.
[244] Rodríguez JA, Theoduloz C, Yáñez T, et al. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of ferruginol in mice and rats:assessment of its mechanism of action using in vitro models[J]. Life Sci, 2006, 78(21):2503-2509.
[245] Yang ZJ, Zhang L, Yang RW, et al. Principal component and cluster analysis of trace elements in Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza and its relative species[J]. Spectrosc Spect Anal, 2008, 28(10):2441-2445.
[246] Li H, Song F, Zhong Z, et al. Characterization of saccharides and phenolic acids in the Chinese herb Tanshen by ESI-FT-ICR-MS and HPLC[J]. J Mass Spectrom, 2008, 43(11):1545-1552.
[247] Jr AJD, Michael W, Cecilia G. Salvia columbariaecontains tanshinones[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med:eCAM, 2005, 2(1):107-110.