CN: 32-1845/R
ISSN: 2095-6975
引用本文:
0
Prasad R. Dandawate, Dharmalingam Subramaniam, Subhash B. Padhye, Shrikant Anant. Bitter melon:a panacea for inflammation and cancer[J]. 中国天然药物英文, 2016, 14(2): 81-100

Bitter melon:a panacea for inflammation and cancer

Prasad R. Dandawate1,2, Dharmalingam Subramaniam1,2,3, Subhash B. Padhye4, Shrikant Anant1,2,3
1 Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA;
2 Department of Surgery, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA;
3 The University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA;
4 Interdisciplinary Science & Technology Research Academy, Abeda Inamdar Senior College, Azam Campus, Pune 411001, India
摘要:
Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants and their products that are useful for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is one of such plants known for its biological activities used in traditional system of medicines. This plant is cultivated in all over the world, including tropical areas of Asia, Amazon, east Africa, and the Caribbean and used as a vegetable as well as folk medicine. All parts of the plant, including the fruit, are commonly consumed and cooked with different vegetables, stir-fried, stuffed or used in small quantities in soups or beans to give a slightly bitter flavor and taste. The plant is reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. The plant extract inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and inhibiting cancer stem cells. The plant is rich in bioactive chemical constituents like cucurbitane type triterpenoids, triterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, fatty acids, and proteins. Some of the isolated compounds(Kuguacin J, Karaviloside XI, Kuguaglycoside C, Momordicoside Q-U, Charantin, α-eleostearic acid) and proteins(α-Momorcharin, RNase MC2, MAP30) possess potent biological activity. In the present review, we are summarizing the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Momordica charantia along with a short account of important chemical constituents, providing a basis for establishing detail biological activities of the plant and developing novel drug molecules based on the active chemical constituents.
关键词:    Momordica charantia    Bitter melon    Anti-oxidant activity    Anti-inflammatory activity    Anti-cancer activity    Natural products   
收稿日期: 2015-10-04
Shrikant Anant,Fax:913-945-6327,E-mail:sanant@kumc.edu.
相关功能
PDF(1885 KB) Free
打印本文
把本文推荐给朋友
作者相关文章
Prasad R. Dandawate 在本刊中的所有文章
Dharmalingam Subramaniam 在本刊中的所有文章
Subhash B. Padhye 在本刊中的所有文章
Shrikant Anant 在本刊中的所有文章
参考文献:
[1] Traditional Medicine Strategy Launched(WHO News)[M]. WHO, 2002:610.
[2] Patwardhan B, Warude D, Pushpangadan P, et al. Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine:a comparative overview[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2005, 2(4):465-473.
[3] Nkambo W, Anyama N, Onegi B. In vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanolic fruit extract of Momordica charantia L.[J]. Afr Health Sci, 2013, 13(4):933-939.
[4] Kwatra D, Subramaniam D, Ramamoorthy P, et al. Methanolic extracts of bitter melon inhibit colon cancer stem cells by affecting energy homeostasis and autophagy[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 2013:702869.
[5] Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, et al. Curcumin and diabetes:a systematic review[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 2013:636053.
[6] Vyas A, Dandawate P, Padhye S, et al. Perspectives on new synthetic curcumin analogs and their potential anticancer properties[J]. Curr Pharm Des, 2013, 19(11):2047-2069.
[7] Subramaniam D, Giridharan P, Murmu N, et al. Activation of apoptosis by 1-hydroxy-5, 7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalenecarboxaldehyde, a novel compound from Aegle marmelos[J]. Cancer Res, 2008, 68(20):8573-8581.
[8] Panaskar SN, Joglekar MM, Taklikar SS, et al. Aegle marmelos Correa leaf extract prevents secondary complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and demonstration of limonene as a potent antiglycating agent[J]. J Pharm Pharmacol, 2013, 65(6):884-894.
[9] Heiser CB. The Gourd Book[M]. Norman:University of Oklahoma Press, 1979.
[10] Tindall HD. Vegetables In The Tropics.[M]. London:Macmillan, 1983.
[11] Reyes MEC, Gildemacher BH, Jansen GJ. Momordica L.[M]. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1994:206-210.
[12] Satyawati GV, Gupta AK, Tandon N. Medicinal plants of India.[M]. Indian Council of Medical Research, 2014:262.
[13] Yesilada E, Gurbuz I, Shibata H. Screening of Turkish anti-ulcerogenic folk remedies for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 1999, 66(3):289-293.
[14] Grover JK, Yadav SP. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia:a review[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2004, 93(1):123-132.
[15] Wei L, Shaoyun W, Shutao L, et al. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process[J]. Food Funct, 2013, 4(12):1850-1855.
[16] Zhu Y, Dong Y, Qian X, et al. Effect of superfine grinding on antidiabetic activity of bitter melon powder[J]. Int J Mol Sci, 2012, 13(11):14203-14218.
[17] Kwatra D, Venugopal A, Standing D, et al. Bitter melon extracts enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents through the modulation of multiple drug resistance[J]. J Pharm Sci, 2013, 102(12):4444-4454.
[18] Chao CY, Sung PJ, Wang WH, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of momordica charantia in sepsis mice[J]. Molecules, 2014, 19(8):12777-12788.
[19] Costa JG, Nascimento EM, Campos AR, et al. Antibacterial activity of Momordica charantia(Curcubitaceae) extracts and fractions[J]. J Basic Clin Pharm, 2010, 2(1):45-51.
[20] Santos KK, Matias EF, Sobral-Souza CE, et al. Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia[J]. Pharm Biol, 2012, 50(2):162-166.
[21] Pongthanapisith V, Ikuta K, Puthavathana P, et al. Antiviral protein of momordica charantia L. inhibits different subtypes of influenza A[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 2013:729081.
[22] Fang EF, Ng TB. Bitter gourd(Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health:a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties[J]. Curr Mol Med, 2011, 11(5):417-436.
[23] Lal J, Chandra S, Raviprakash V, et al. In vitro anthelmintic action of some indigenous medicinal plants on Ascardia galli worms[J]. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 1976, 20(2):64-68.
[24] Frame AD, Rios-Olivares E, De JL, et al. Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis properties[J]. PR Health Sci J, 1998, 17(3):243-252.
[25] Ojewole JA, Adewole SO, Olayiwola G. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn.(Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats[J]. Cardiovasc J S Afr, 2006, 17(5):227-232.
[26] Shih CC, Lin CH, Lin WL. Effects of Momordica charantia on insulin resistance and visceral obesity in mice on high-fat diet[J]. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2008, 81(2):134-143.
[27] Deng YY, Yi Y, Zhang LF, et al. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia[J]. Molecules, 2014, 19(9):13432-13447.
[28] Manik S, Gauttam V, Kalia AN. Anti-diabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of allopolyherbal formulation in OGTT and STZ-induced diabetic rat model[J]. Indian J Exp Biol, 2013, 51(9):702-708.
[29] Lu KH, Tseng HC, Liu CT, et al. Wild bitter gourd protects against alcoholic fatty liver in mice by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses[J]. Food Funct, 2014, 5(5):1027-1037.
[30] Malik ZA, Singh M, Sharma PL. Neuroprotective effect of Momordica charantia in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced neuronal damage in diabetic mice[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2011, 133(2):729-734.
[31] Haque ME, Alam MB, Hossain MS. The efficacy of cucurbitane type triterpenoids, glycosides and phenolic compounds isolated from Momordica charantia[J]. Int J Pharma Sci Res, 2011, 2(5):1135-1146.
[32] Jeffrey C. An Outline Classification Of The Cucurbitaceae(Appendix). Biology And Utilization Of The Cucurbitaceae[M]. Ithaca:Cornell Univ Press, 1990:449-463.
[33] Robinson RW, D SD-W. Cucurbits[M]. CAB International, 1997.
[34] Walters TW, Decker-Walters DS. Balsampear(Morn ordica chorantia, Cucurbitaceae).[J]. Econ Bot, 1998, 42:286-288.
[35] Miniraj N, Prasanna KP, Peter KV. Bitter Gourd Mornordicu App. Genetic Improvement Of Vegetable Plants.[M]. Pergamon Press, 1993:239-246.
[36] Decker-Walters DS. Cucurbits, sanskrit, and the indo-aryans.[J]. Econ But, 1999, 53:98-112.
[37] Turner RL. A Comparative Dictionary Of The Indo-Aryan Languages[M]. Oxford University Press, 1966.
[38] Yang SL, Walters TW. Ethnobotanyand the economic role of the cucurbitaceae of China[J]. Econ Bot, 1992, 46:349-367.
[39] Marr KL, Xia YM, Bhattarai NK. Allozyme, morphological and nutritional analysis bearing on the domestication of Mornordico churontia L.(Cucurbitaceae)[J]. Econ Bot, 2004, 58:435-455.
[40] Lim TK. Loofahs, Gourds, Melons And Snakebeans[M]. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 1998:212-218.
[41] Reyes MEC, Gildemacher BH, Jansen GJ. Momordica L.[M]. PudocScientific Publishers, 1994:206-210.
[42] Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables:The Complete Guide For Garden And Kitchen[M]. John Murray, 1991.
[43] Desai U, Musmad AM. Pumpkins, Squashes And Gourds[M]. Marcel Dekker, 1998:273-298.
[44] Behera TK, Bharathi LK, et al. Bitter Gourd:Botany, Horticulture, Breeding, Horticultural Reviews[M]. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
[45] De Wilde WJ, Duyfies BE. Synopsis of Momordica(Cucurbitaceae) in SE-Asia and Malaysia[J]. Bot Zhuro, 2002, 87:132-148.
[46] Chakravarty HL. Gucurbits Of India And Their Role In The Development Of Vegetable Crops[M]. Cornell Univ Press, 1990:325-334.
[47] Yuwai KE, Rao KS, Kaluwin C, et al. Chemical composition of Momordica charantia L. fruits[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 1991, 39(10):1762-1763.
[48] Xiang C, Wu CY, Wang LP. Analysis and utilization of nutrient composition in bitter gourd(Momordica charantia)[J]. J Huazhong Agr Univ, 2000, 19:388-390.
[49] Yen GC, Hwang LS. Lycopene from the seeds of ripe bitter melon(Momordica charantia) as a potential red food colorant. Ⅱ. Storage stability, preparation of powdered lycopene and food applications[J]. J Chin Agricul Chem Soc, 1985, 23:151-161.
[50] Kimura Y, Akihisa T, Yuasa N, et al. Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruit of Momordica charantia[J]. J Nat Prod, 2005, 68(5):807-809.
[51] Akihisa T, Higo N, Tokuda H, et al. Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruits of Momordica charantia and their cancer chemopreventive effects[J]. J Nat Prod, 2007, 70(8):1233-1239.
[52] Zhang J, Huang Y, Kikuchi T, et al. Cucurbitane triterpenoids from the leaves of Momordica charantia, and their cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxicities[J]. Chem Biodivers, 2012, 9(2):428-440.
[53] Cao JQ, Zhang Y, Cui JM, et al. Two new cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia L.[J]. Chin Chem Lett, 2011, 22(5):583-586.
[54] Chen CR, Liao YW, Wang L, et al. Cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their cytoprotective activity in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells[J]. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo), 2010, 58(12):1639-1642.
[55] Harinantenaina L, Tanaka M, Takaoka S, et al. Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds[J]. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo), 2006,54(7):1017-1021.
[56] Hsu C, Hsieh CL, Kuo YH, et al. Isolation and identification of cucurbitane-type triterpenoids with partial agonist/antagonist potential for estrogen receptors from Momordica charantia[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2011, 59(9):4553-4561.
[57] Weng JR, Bai LY, Chiu CF, et al. Cucurbitane triterpenoid from Momordica charantia induces apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells, in part, through peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma activation[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 2013:935675.
[58] Cheng HL, Kuo CY, Liao YW, et al. EMCD, a hypoglycemic triterpene isolated from Momordica charantia wild variant, attenuates TNF-alpha-induced inflammation in FL83B cells in an AMP-activated protein kinase-independent manner[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2012, 689(1-3):241-248.
[59] Chen J, Tian R, Qiu M, et al. Trinorcucurbitane and cucurbitane triterpenoids from the roots of Momordica charantia[J]. Phytochemistry, 2008, 69(4):1043-1048.
[60] Chen JC, Liu WQ, Lu L, et al. Kuguacins F-S, cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia[J]. Phytochemistry, 2009, 70(1):133-140.
[61] Pitchakarn P, Ohnuma S, Pintha K, et al. Kuguacin J isolated from Momordica charantia leaves inhibits P-glycoprotein(ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance[J]. J Nutr Biochem, 2012, 23(1):76-84.
[62] Nakamura S, Murakami T, Nakamura J, et al. Structures of new cucurbitane-type triterpenes and glycosides, karavilagenins and karavilosides, from the dried fruit of Momordica charantia L. in Sri Lanka[J]. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo), 2006, 54(11):1545-1550.
[63] Zhao GT, Liu JQ, Deng YY, et al. Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the stems and leaves of Momordica charantia[J]. Fitoterapia, 2014, 95:75-82.
[64] Chang CI, Chen CR, Liao YW, et al. Octanorcucurbitane triterpenoids protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity from the stems of Momordica charantia[J]. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo), 2010, 58(2):225-229.
[65] Wang X, Sun W, Cao J, et al. Structures of new triterpenoids and cytotoxicity activities of the isolated major compounds from the fruit of Momordica charantia L.[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2012, 60(15):3927-3933.
[66] Hsiao PC, Liaw CC, Hwang SY, et al. Antiproliferative and hypoglycemic cucurbitane-type glycosides from the fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2013, 61(12):2979-2986.
[67] Murakami T, Emoto A, Matsuda H, et al. Medicinal foodstuffs. XXI. Structures of new cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides, goyaglycosides-a, -b, -c, -d, -e, -f, -g, and -h, and new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, goyasaponins I, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ, from the fresh fruit of Japanese Momordica charantia L.[J]. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo), 2001, 49(1):54-63.
[68] Chen JC, Lu L, Zhang XM, et al. Eight new cucurbitane glycosides, kuguaglycosides A□-□H, from the root of Momordica charantia L.[J]. Helv Chim Acta, 2008, 91(5):920-929.
[69] Tabata K, Hamano A, Akihisa T, et al. Kuguaglycoside C, a constituent of Momordica charantia, induces caspaseindependent cell death of neuroblastoma cells[J]. Cancer Sci, 2012, 103(12):2153-2158.
[70] Nhiem NX, Kiem PV, Minh CV, et al. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition properties of cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides from the fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo), 2010, 58(5):720-724.
[71] Tan MJ, Ye JM, Turner N, et al. Antidiabetic activities of triterpenoids isolated from bitter melon associated with activation of the AMPK pathway[J]. Chem Biol, 2008, 15(3):263-273.
[72] Li QY, Chen HB, Liu ZM, et al. Cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia[J]. Magn Reson Chem, 2007, 45(6):451-456.
[73] Nguyen XN, Phan VK, Chau VM, et al. Cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides from the fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. Magn Reson Chem, 2010, 48(5):392-396.
[74] Lin KW, Yang SC, Lin CN. Antioxidant constituents from the stems and fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. Food Chem, 2011, 127(2):609-614.
[75] Yen PH, Dung DT, Nhiem NX, et al. Cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides from the fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. Nat Prod Commun, 2014, 9(3):383-386.
[76] Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Murakami T, et al. Structures of new cucurbitane-type triterpenes and glycosides, karavilagenins D and E, and karavilosides VI, VⅡ, VⅢ, IX, X, and XI, from the fruit of Momordica charantia[J]. Heterocycles, 2007, 71:331-341.
[77] Keller AC, Ma J, Kavalier A, et al. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro[J]. Phytomedicine, 2011, 19(1):32-37.
[78] Mekuria DB, Kashiwagi T, Tebayashi S, et al. Cucurbitane glucosides from Momordica charantia leaves as oviposition deterrents to the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii[J]. Z Naturforsch C, 2006, 61(1-2):81-86.
[79] Kashiwagi T, Mekuria DB, Dekebo A, et al. A new oviposition deterrent to the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii:cucurbitane glucoside from Momordica charantia[J]. Z Naturforsch C, 2007, 62(7-8):603-607.
[80] Kenny O, Smyth TJ, Hewage CM, et al. Antioxidant properties and quantitative UPLC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds from extracts of fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon(Momordica charantia) fruit[J]. Food Chem, 2013, 141(4):4295-4302.
[81] Horax R, Hettiarachchy N, Chen P. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons(Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages(immature, mature, and ripe)[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2010, 58(7):4428-4433.
[82] Hsu C, Tsai TH, Li YY, et al. Wild bitter melon(Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) extract and its bioactive components suppress propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation[J]. Food Chem, 2012, 135(3):976-984.
[83] Braca A, Siciliano T, D'Arrigo M, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil[J]. Fitoterapia, 2008, 79(2):123-125.
[84] Ahmad Z, Zamhuri KF, Yaacob A, et al. In vitro anti-diabetic activities and chemical analysis of polypeptide-k and oil isolated from seeds of Momordica charantia(bitter gourd)[J]. Molecules, 2012, 17(8):9631-9640.
[85] Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Sahara T, et al. Bitter gourd seed fatty acid rich in 9c,11t,13t-conjugated linolenic acid induces apoptosis and up-regulates the GADD45, p53 and PPARgamma in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells[J]. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2005, 73(2):113-119.
[86] Ng TB, Liu WK, Sze SF, et al. Action of alpha-momorcharin, a ribosome inactivating protein, on cultured tumor cell lines[J]. Gen Pharmacol, 1994, 25(1):75-77.
[87] Meng Y, Liu S, Li J, et al. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent:chemical modification of alpha-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol[J]. Int J Nanomedicine, 2012, 7:3133-3142.
[88] Manoharan G, Jaiswal SR, Singh J. Effect of alpha, beta momorcharin on viability, caspase activity, cytochrome c release and on cytosolic calcium levels in different cancer cell lines[J]. Mol Cell Biochem, 2014, 388(1-2):233-240.
[89] Fang EF, Zhang CZ, Fong WP, et al. RNase MC2:a new Momordica charantia ribonuclease that induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells associated with activation of MAPKs and induction of caspase pathways[J]. Apoptosis, 2012, 17(4):377-387.
[90] Fan JM, Luo J, Xu J, et al. Effects of recombinant MAP30 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells[J]. Mol Biotechnol, 2008, 39(1):79-86.
[91] Wong JH, Wang HX, Ng TB. Marmorin, a new ribosome inactivating protein with antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from the mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus[J]. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2008, 81(4):669-674.
[92] Thenmozhi AJ, Subramanian P. Antioxidant potential of Momordica charantia in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2010, 1:4.
[93] Lin KW, Yang SC, Lin CN. Antioxidant constituents from the stems and fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. Food Chem, 2011, 127(2):609-614.
[94] Kumar R, Balaji S, Sripriya R, et al. In vitro evaluation of antioxidants of fruit extract of Momordica charantia L. on fibroblasts and keratinocytes[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2010, 58(3):1518-1522.
[95] Dhar P, Chattopadhyay K, Bhattacharyya D, et al. Antioxidative effect of conjugated linolenic acid in diabetic and non-diabetic blood:an in vitro study[J]. J Oleo Sci, 2006, 56(1):19-24.
[96] Ching RH, Yeung LO, Tse IM, et al. Supplementation of bitter melon to rats fed a high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation ameliorates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male offspring[J]. J Nutr, 2011, 141(9):1664-1672.
[97] Tripathi UN, Chandra D. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats[J]. Indian J Biochem Biophys, 2010, 47(4):227-233.
[98] Tripathi UN, Chandra D. The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus[J]. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2009, 2(5):290-296.
[99] Chaturvedi P, George S. Momordica charantia maintains normal glucose levels and lipid profiles and prevents oxidative stress in diabetic rats subjected to chronic sucrose load[J]. J Med Food, 2010, 13(3):520-527.
[100] Teoh SL, Abd LA, Das S. Histological changes in the kidneys of experimental diabetic rats fed with Momordica charantia(bitter gourd) extract[J]. Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2010, 51(1):91-95.
[101] Teoh SL, Latiff AA, Das S. A histological study of the structural changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without Momordica charantia(bitter gourd)[J]. Clin Ter, 2009, 160(4):283-286.
[102] Xiang L, Huang X, Chen L, et al. The reparative effects of Momordica Charantia Linn. extract on HIT-T15 pancreatic beta-cells[J]. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007, 16(Suppl 1):249-252.
[103] Sathishsekar D, Subramanian S. Antioxidant properties of Momordica Charantia(bitter gourd) seeds on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats[J]. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005, 14(2):153-158.
[104] Kavitha N, Babu SM, Rao ME. Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats[J]. Indian J Pharmacol, 2011, 43(4):424-428.
[105] Nerurkar PV, Johns LM, Buesa LM, et al. Momordica charantia(bitter melon) attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation[J]. J Neuroinflammation, 2011, 8:64.
[106] Chaturvedi P. Bitter melon protects against lipid peroxidation caused by immobilization stress in albino rats[J]. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2009, 79(1):48-56.
[107] Padmashree A, Sharma GK, Semwal AD, et al. Studies on the antioxygenic activity of bitter gourd(Momordica charantia) and its fractions using various in vitro models[J]. J Sci Food Agric, 2011, 91(4):776-782.
[108] De S, Ganguly C, Das S. Natural dietary agents can protect against DMBA genotoxicity in lymphocytes as revealed by single cell gel electrophoresis assay[J]. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 2003, Suppl 1:71-78.
[109] Xu J, Cao K, Li Y, et al. Bitter gourd inhibits the development of obesity-associated fatty liver in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet[J]. J Nutr, 2014, 144(4):475-483.
[110] Bao B, Chen YG, Zhang L, et al. Momordica charantia(Bitter Melon) reduces obesity-associated macrophage and mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissues[J]. PLoS One, 2013, 8(12):e84075.
[111] Hsieh CH, Chen GC, Chen PH, et al. Altered white adipose tissue protein profile in C57BL/6J mice displaying delipidative, inflammatory, and browning characteristics after bitter melon seed oil treatment[J]. PLoS One, 2013, 8(9):e72917.
[112] Jain V, Pareek A, Paliwal N, et al. Antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects of Momordica charantia L. in tibial and sural nerve transection-induced neuropathic pain in rats[J]. Nutr Neurosci, 2014, 17(2):88-96.
[113] Lii CK, Chen HW, Yun WT, et al. Suppressive effects of wild bitter gourd(Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser.) fruit extracts on inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2009, 122(2):227-233.
[114] Kobori M, Nakayama H, Fukushima K, et al. Bitter gourd suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2008, 56(11):4004-4011.
[115] Ou L, Kong LY, Zhang XM, et al. Oxidation of ferulic acid by Momordica charantia peroxidase and related anti-inflammation activity changes[J]. Biol Pharm Bull, 2003, 26(11):1511-1516.
[116] Weng JR, Bai LY, Chiu CF, et al. Cucurbitane triterpenoid from Momordica charantia induces apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells, in part, through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 2013:935675.
[117] Ray RB, Raychoudhuri A, Steele R, et al. Bitter melon(Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis[J]. Cancer Res, 2010, 70(5):1925-1931.
[118] Grossmann ME, Mizuno NK, Dammen ML, et al. Eleostearic acid inhibits breast cancer proliferation by means of an oxidation-dependent mechanism[J]. Cancer Prev Res(Phila), 2009, 2(10):879-886.
[119] Nagasawa H, Watanabe K, Inatomi H. Effects of bitter melon(Momordica charantia L.) or ginger rhizome(Zingiber offifinale rosc) on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice[J]. Am J Chin Med, 2002, 30(2-3):195-205.
[120] Lee-Huang S, Huang PL, Sun Y, et al. Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor xenografts and HER2 expression by anti-tumor agents GAP31 and MAP30[J]. Anticancer Res, 2000, 20(2A):653-659.
[121] Cao D, Sun Y, Wang L, et al. Alpha-momorcharin(alpha-MMC) exerts effective anti-human breast tumor activities but has a narrow therapeutic window in vivo[J]. Fitoterapia, 2015, 100:139-149.
[122] Li CJ, Tsang SF, Tsai CH, et al. Momordica charantia extract induces apoptosis in human cancer cells through caspase-and mitochondria-dependent pathways[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012, 2012:261971.
[123] Li Y, Yin L, Zheng L, et al. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system to separate three proteins from Momordica charantia[J]. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2012, 895-896:77-82.
[124] Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Sahara T, et al. Bitter gourd seed fatty acid rich in 9c, 11t, 13t-conjugated linolenic acid induces apoptosis and up-regulates the GADD45, p53 and PPARgamma in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells[J]. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2005, 73(2):113-119.
[125] Deep G, Dasgupta T, Rao AR, et al. Cancer preventive potential of Momordica charantia L. against benzo(a)pyrene induced fore-stomach tumourigenesis in murine model system[J]. Indian J Exp Biol, 2004, 42(3):319-322.
[126] Kohno H, Yasui Y, Suzuki R, et al. Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from bitter melon inhibits azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through elevation of colonic PPARgamma expression and alteration of lipid composition[J]. Int J Cancer, 2004, 110(6):896-901.
[127] Kohno H, Suzuki R, Noguchi R, et al. Dietary conjugated linolenic acid inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats[J]. Jpn J Cancer Res, 2002, 93(2):133-142.
[128] Lolitkar MM, Rajarama RM. Note on a Hypoglycaemic Principle Isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia[J]. J Univer Bombay, 1962, 29:223-224.
[129] Olaniyi AA. A neutral constituent of Momordica foetida[J]. Lloydia, 1975, 38(4):361-362.
[130] Krawinkel MB, Keding GB. Bitter gourd(Momordica Charantia):A dietary approach to hyperglycemia[J]. Nutr Rev, 2006, 64(7 Pt 1):331-337.
[131] Patel R, Mahobia N, Upwar N, et al. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits[J]. J Adv Pharm Technol Res, 2010, 1(4):415-418.
[132] Pitipanapong J, Chitprasert S, Goto M, et al. New approach for extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia with pressurized liquid extraction[J]. Sep Purif Technol, 2007, 52(3):416-422.
[133] Wang HY, Kan WC, Cheng TJ, et al. Differential anti-diabetic effects and mechanism of action of charantin-rich extract of Taiwanese Momordica charantia between type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice[J]. Food Chem Toxicol, 2014, 69:347-356.
[134] Patel S, Patel T, Parmara K, et al. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of charantin from Momordica charantia Linn. fruit[J]. Int J Drug Develop Res, 2010, 2(3):629-634.
[135] Kaur M, Deep G, Jain AK, et al. Bitter melon juice activates cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase causing apoptotic death of human pancreatic carcinoma cells[J]. Carcinogenesis, 2013, 34(7):1585-1592.
[136] Fang EF, Zhang CZ, Wong JH, et al. The MAP30 protein from bitter gourd(Momordica charantia) seeds promotes apoptosis in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo[J]. Cancer Lett, 2012, 324(1):66-74.
[137] Fang EF, Zhang CZ, Zhang L, et al. In vitro and in vivo anticarcinogenic effects of RNase MC2, a ribonuclease isolated from dietary bitter gourd, toward human liver cancer cells[J]. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2012, 44(8):1351-1360.
[138] Zhang CZ, Fang EF, Zhang HT, et al. Momordica charantia lectin exhibits antitumor activity towards hepatocellular carcinoma[J]. Invest New Drugs, 2015, 33(1):1-11.
[139] Ru P, Steele R, Nerurkar PV, et al. Bitter melon extract impairs prostate cancer cell-cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP model[J]. Cancer Prev Res(Phila), 2011, 4(12):2122-2130.
[140] Pitchakarn P, Suzuki S, Ogawa K, et al. Induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer by Kuguacin J, a triterpenoid from Momordica charantia leaf[J]. Cancer Lett, 2011, 306(2):142-150.
[141] Pitchakarn P, Ogawa K, Suzuki S, et al. Momordica charantia leaf extract suppresses rat prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo[J]. Cancer Sci, 2010, 101(10):2234-2240.
[142] Xiong SD, Yu K, Liu XH, et al. Ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from dietary bitter melon induce apoptosis and inhibit histone deacetylase-1 selectively in premalignant and malignant prostate cancer cells[J]. Int J Cancer, 2009, 125(4):774-782.
[143] Agrawal RC, Beohar T. Chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effects of Momordica charantia extract[J]. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2010, 11(2):371-375.
[144] Ganguly C, De S, Das S. Prevention of carcinogen-induced mouse skin papilloma by whole fruit aqueous extract of Momordica charantia[J]. Eur J Cancer Prev, 2000, 9(4):283-288.
[145] Singh A, Singh SP, Bamezai R. Momordica charantia(Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis[J]. Toxicol Lett, 1998, 94(1):37-46.
[146] Pitchakarn P, Ohnuma S, Pintha K, et al. Kuguacin J isolated from Momordica charantia leaves inhibits P-glycoprotein(ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance[J]. J Nutr Biochem, 2012, 23(1):76-84.
[147] Limtrakul P, Khantamat O, Pintha K. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity and reversal of cancer multidrug resistance by Momordica charantia extract[J]. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2004, 54(6):525-530.
[148] Kai H, Akamatsu E, Torii E, et al. Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia(ATL)-related cell lines[J]. J Nat Med, 2011, 65(3-4):651-655.
[149] Kobori M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Akimoto Y, et al. Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 2008, 56(22):10515-10520.
[150] Takemoto DJ, Dunford C, Vaughn D, et al. Guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes. Enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts[J]. Enzyme, 1982, 27(3):179-188.
[151] Porro G, Bolognesi A, Caretto P, et al. In vitro and in vivo properties of an anti-CD5-momordin immunotoxin on normal and neoplastic T lymphocytes[J]. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 1993, 36(5):346-350.
[152] Brennan VC, Wang CM, Yang WH. Bitter melon(Momordica charantia) extract suppresses adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation through modulation of the apoptotic pathway, steroidogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase signaling[J]. J Med Food, 2012, 15(4):325-334.
[153] Hsu HY, Lin JH, Li CJ, et al. Antimigratory effects of the methanol extract from Momordica charantia on human lung adenocarcinoma CL1 Cells[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012, 2012:819632.
[154] Fan X, He L, Meng Y, et al. Alpha-MMC and MAP30, two ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from Momordica charantia, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells[J]. Mol Med Rep, 2015, 11(5):3553-3558.
[155] Pan WL, Wong JH, Fang EF, et al. Preferential cytotoxicity of the type I ribosome inactivating protein alphamomorcharin on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells under normoxia and hypoxia[J]. Biochem Pharmacol, 2014, 89(3):329-339.
[156] Rajamoorthi A, Shrivastava S, Steele R, et al. Bitter melon reduces head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth by targeting c-Met signaling[J]. PLoS One, 2013, 8(10):e78006.